History of military intelligence - period of the First Republic
In 1933, the German Intelligence activities towards the CSR increased. That was after Adolph Hitler became a Chancellor of the Third Reich. The Czechoslovak Military Intelligence concluded that the German Intelligence Service prepares a support for actual war action against Czechoslovakia, because of a gradual gaining of Nazi confidential military documents and trapping the intelligence questionnaires and orders to increase irredentist activities. In 1934, the head of the German Military Intelligence became Admiral Wilhelm Canaris, who started reorganization of the service and created centrally controlled spy and defense intelligence, so called Abwehrdienst, according to orders of Hitler and General Keitl. According to Colonel of the General Staff Moravec's assessment, the greatest intelligence pressure at Czechoslovakia from the side of Abwehr started in 1935. The German minority created a great operational situation for the Abwehr activities and espionage for Germany was seen as a point of honor and duty to the spiritual homeland and members of the German minority in Czechoslovakia actually served in espionage with open passion. The current low punishments for espionage were the disadvantage for Czechoslovakia; provisions of national defense Act changed these. Even low resistance of the inhabitants of the Czech nationality to temptation of the German intelligence played into German espionage aggression. Citizens of the Czech nationality often offered their service to Abwehr spontaneously because of financial benefits. Three central offices operated against Czechoslovakia. The central office in Dresden operated against southern and western Bohemia with the special aim at the Pilsner industry region and Wroclaw central office aimed at the Moravian territory. Abwehr used naturally even diplomatic representation of the Third Reich and the German University in Prague.
Hungary started its work against Czechoslovakia as a part of activities against countries of the Little Entente systematically since 1920. Since aims of Hungary and The Third Reich were similar, General Staffs of Hungary and Germany got into contact and on the basis of this the Hungarian-German intelligence cooperation was set, including passing information on aims of the intelligence, which was intensified especially after 1933. Although the system of work of the Hungarian Intelligence was different from the German one, Hungarian and even German services used members of the Hungarian national minority in Slovakia to conduct espionage and to prepare and execute sabotage in the Czechoslovak territory. Especially intelligence of the Hungarian Intelligence central office sited in Vienna, it was easier for Hungarian agents to infiltrate into territory of Czechoslovakia than to cross the Czechoslovak-Hungarian border. Especially former officers of the Austrian-Hungarian Army worked for the Central Office that worked in business, industrial and bank organizations, which were in account with Czechoslovakia. The head of the Vienna central office of the Hungarian Intelligence Service was Lieutenant Colonel of the Hungarian Army (of German origin) Reichbauer and activities of the Central Office was legalized as a subdivision of one German export-import company.