History of military intelligence - period of the First Republic
According to reaction of the Czechoslovak government, German nationalists went underground straight in the first days of the republic. They had been establishing associations and organizations, which set themselves large aims leading to fulfil the above mentioned intentions. An illegal resistance group the "Deutscher Mitterstandverband" was established around deputy in the National Assembly Dr. Alois Baeran. In 1919, a center for German illegal resistance movement in Czechoslovakia the "Hilfsverein für Deutschböhmen" was established in Vienna.
To sketch in the situation, we have to add that a German consul in Prague Baron Gabsattel was expelled from Czechoslovakia because of espionage at the beginning of 1919. This espionage was a grave signal to the Czechoslovak Administration about real intents of the neighboring country in the period shortly after the war and establishment of diplomatic relations with Germany. According to above-mentioned facts, the Headquarters of the Czechoslovak Army proceeded to development of military intelligence, which comprised of the 2nd Department (intelligence) of the General Staff, in 1919 after necessary preparations.
During first several years, the 2nd Department dealt mainly with lack of personnel since the head of the Military Intelligence in the Austro-Hungarian Army was Brigadier Max Ronge in the First World War. He was against placing officers of the Czech nationality in the intelligence service of the Monarchy, especially in higher military headquarters. However, Major of the General Staff Haužvic and Major of the General Staff Pavel operated in the intelligence structures of the Austro-Hungarian Army. Based on their experience, the Czechoslovak National Defense Ministry appointed Major Čeněk Haužvic in the post of Chief of the 2nd Department of the Main Staff. Major Pavel left to work in the structures of the State Department. However, he put together his experience in the Intelligence Service to be used by the 2nd Department. The deputy of the Chief of the 2nd Department was Major of Italian legion Mojmír Soukup. Under his control, the Department started investigation of intelligence information from the 1st World War and first intelligence courses begun. In the courses, mainly French officers lectured. The 2nd Department was then built primarily on the base of experience and with respect to the system of the French organization.