History of military intelligence - introduction
The field of military intelligence under military conditions has been organized, controlled and used variously in every individual country. It is usually divided in two basic kinds of activities; i.e. intelligence or offensive intelligence, and defensive or counter-intelligence. At the same time, the essence in this case is not what names of individual military intelligence sections are and in which organization structure they have been operating, the essence is always the area of activities. Every intelligence service, including the military one, can represent information service without executive power, up to services with executive power, permission to arrest and interrogate. They differ in range of activities, mostly in connection with the facts the country is democratic or totalitarian, if and how much risks and threats of military assault are real in individual countries and, on the contrary, ambitions to expand. It depends also up to traditions, importance of the security bodies in the social system of the country and their position in the social value system.
Under Czechoslovak and later Czech conditions, even military intelligence reflected social system and conditions and, in the face of these, it went through a series of organization forms, had different aims and ways to gain them. Since the beginning of development of the military intelligence, through its operations in the First Republic conditions of the time before the Munich Pact of 1938, the Second Republic, during the Second World War, shortly after the WWII during the fight of democratic and communist powers for the power in the post-war republic, through its operation in the structures of communist National Defense Ministries and Interior Ministries, up to its present form given by the legislation after 1990, it always have had reflected politic requests and interests.